The Forest Rights Act

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Is the Tribal Ministry Trying to Sabotage Community Forest Rights Again?

Since the passage of the Forest Rights Act in 2006, powerful forces – forest officials in particular – have been doing their best to sabotage the rights of tribals and forest dwellers. Under the Modi government this sabotage has been reaching new heights, including trying to bypass the law by instituting parallel regimes, undercutting the law in the Supreme Court and facilitating grabbing of tribals’ resources. Now the Ministry of Tribal Affairs seems to be at it again.

Among the most powerful provisions of the Forest Rights Act is its recognition of forest dwellers’ right to manage, protect and conserve their “community forest resources” (CFR). This was the first time in Indian history that ordinary citizens have been given a legal power to protect the environment. Moreover, under the law, in every village where there are forest dwellers, under the law, it is mandatory to record and recognise community forest resource rights. But in spite of this legal provision, in most of the country, CFR rights have not been recognised. A 2015 analysis found that only 1.2 percent of the potential CFR areas in the country had been recognised – and the situation has hardly changed since.

As far back as April 2015, the Ministry had issued binding directions to all authorities on CFRs. These guidelines mandated that CFRs should be recorded as a new category of forests, that villages had the right to make their own plans in their own formats and to access funds for the same, and even provided that state governments could approach the Ministry for funds if required for this purpose.

Perhaps precisely because they were so comprehensive, these guidelines were never implemented. Now, in 2020, instead of asking why its own binding orders were ignored, the Ministry set up another committee in February to “examine and recommend model guidelines for conservation,management and sustainable use of community forest resources (CFR Guidelines) under FRA.” This 15 member committee, chaired by Dr NC Saxena, also has forest officials among its members.

At best this is an exercise in bureaucratic wheel spinning. At worst, it is an attempt to sabotage this powerful provision by introducing procedural requirements that will make it impossible for communities to actually manage their forests. In either case, it is a betrayal of tribals and forest dwellers.

Hence we call upon the Ministry to:

(a) scrap this committee;
(b) list out all habitations in the country where FRA is applicable;
(c) organise records of the forests including maps and data, and hand them over to the concerned Gram Sabhas as per the Rules;
(d) ensure that all the eligible habitations are provided the necessary training and tools to generate and process CFR claims, also as required by the Rules;
(d) to direct state governments to constitute CFR management committee and operationalise CFR management on the basis of the 2015 guidelines.

Is BJP Govt Setting Up Millions of Tribals and Forest Dwellers for Eviction Again?

In February 2019, following two years of silence by the Central Government in a case against the Forest Rights Act, the Supreme Court issued orders for over a million tribals and forest dwellers to be evicted from their lands. The court directed that all those whose claims for rights under the Forest Rights Act had been rejected should be evicted.

After tens of thousands of people protested across the country, the Central Government finally opened its mouth in court and said what it should have said long before – that most of the rejections were illegal and the result of abuse of power by forest officials. The State governments came back to court and said they were willing to review the rejections. Now, several months later, the Tribal Ministry is holding a meeting – but only to look at “progress made by states in this regard” (letter here).

So, is the Modi government getting ready to again turn its back on the rights of forest dwellers?

The issue was never about rejected claims alone – this case is about the constitutionality of the Forest Rights Act. The petitioners had earlier said this entire act is unconstitutional – but they now want to evict millions of people from their lands on the basis of the procedure laid out in this very Act. Moreover, rejection is not a reason for eviction in itself. The only reason that the petitioners have been able to get away with this is that no one from the government opposed them in court for years (in cases on the constitutionality of a legislation, courts look to the government to respond). Is the Central government again planning to not say anything about this in court?

Further, all of this has meant that instead of building on the conservation potential of India’s first law to recognise a clear statutory right to conserve, both the government and the court are now entirely focused on reviewing and rejecting claims. In most major forested states, progress on recognising the rights of communities to conserve and protect their forests has slowed to almost zero. Indeed the Act is barely being implemented at all since February 2019 – when barely ten percent of rights have been recognised till date. Meanwhile the so-called reviews have often consisted of simply reiterating the illegal rejections.

But none of this features in the Ministry’s plan at all. All of this indicates that, at best, this government is still planning to treat this case with indifference. At worst, it is trying to destroy the Forest Rights Act through the back door. We condemn this and the struggle continues.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity

Tribals, Forest Dwellers Across India Take to the Streets Against BJP Govt’s Attack on Their Rights

Yesterday, today and tomorrow, mass protests are being held across India against the BJP government at the Centre’s moves to attack the rights of tribals and forest dwellers. Tens of thousands of people are protesting in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand against the government’s steps, including:

The following protests are taking place:

  • Madhya Pradesh – a month long Adivasi Hunkar Yatra, organised by a cross-party and cross-organisation coalition, staged a huge mass protest in Bhopal with thousands of people.
  • Chhattisgarh – week long padyatras from multiple districts in the state are reaching Raipur and will be holding a mass rally tomorrow.
  • Odisha – starting tomorrow, hundreds of people will be joining a dharna in Bhubaneshwar, with people from southern districts joining on the 18th, from northern districts on the 19th, and from western districts on Wednesday.
  • Rajasthan – following on a series of rallies and dharnas, several thousand people protested in front of the Tribal Commissioner’s office in Udaipur.
  • Tamil Nadu – A protest will be held in Kanyakumari district headquarters tomorrow, and a bandh is being called in the Nilgiris tomorrow with a dharna and hunger strike the day after.
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli – A mass protest was held in the capital yesterday.
  • Uttarakhand – A joint press conference by the state’s social movements and opposition parties will be held tomorrow in Dehradun, and a date for a protest announced.
  • Gujarat – A cross organisation delegation convened by Adivasi Mahasabha will be raising demands before the Tribal Commissioner tomorrow.

On the 21st, the cross-party and cross-organisation coalition Bhumi Adhikar Andolan will be holding a mass rally in Delhi with several thousand people expected to participate.

Since protests in Jharkhand are difficult to organise with the model code of conduct in force, a mass rally on these demands was already held on October 12th in Ranchi. Mass protests in Thane and Gadchiroli in Maharashtra had to be cancelled due to rains.

Photos can be found below.

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A Victory for Tribals and Forest Dwellers – Govt Withdraws Indian Forest Act Amendments

In a press conference today, Environment and Forests Minister Prakash Javadekar announced that the government is withdrawing its proposal to bring draconian amendments to the Indian Forest Act. The proposed amendments would have made forest officials the most powerful officials in the country, with the power to arrest, raid, seize and shoot to kill without facing any accountability – powers that even the security forces do not enjoy in disturbed areas.

We welcome this withdrawal, which follows on nationwide protests and condemnation across the political spectrum, and which has clearly been done to avoid the mass protests planned across the country and in Delhi as well as to avoid negative fallout in the Jharkhand elections.

We note that the Minister’s statement is deeply misleading in several respects. The Minister claimed that the proposed amendments were merely a “draft” that resulted from a “study”, but in fact the letter sent to State governments on March 7th clearly stated that this was a proposal for legislation (you can see a copy here) and the Minister himself stated the same in this reply to a starred question in Parliament on June 28th. In the same reply he also misled Parliament by stating that the draft would be “in addition” to the rights recognised by the Forest Rights Act, though in fact it would have negated those rights.

We note that the Minister’s announcement today is meaningless until the Ministry issues a written notification withdrawing this draft. The protests on the 17th, which were on other issues as well as this, will continue as planned.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity

On Nov 17th, Protests Planned Across Country Against Attack on the Rights of Tribals and Forest Dwellers

For English please see below

आर पार को हैं तैयार, ले कर रहेंगे वन अधिकार!

सरकार द्वारा आदिवासियों और जंगलवासियों के अधिकारों पर नीतिगत हमले के विरुद्ध में देश भर आंदोलन

कल दिनांक 25 सितम्बर को “इज्जत से जीने का अधिकार अभियान” ने एलान किया कि आगामी 17 नवंबर 2019 को देश भर के राज्य की राजधानियों और अन्य शहरों में केंद्र सरकार की आदिवासी और अन्य परम्परागत वन निवासियों के खिलाफ बनाई जा रही जन विरोधी नीतियों के खिलाफ जुलुस निकाला जायेगा। उल्लेखनीय है कि “इज्जत से जीने का अधिकार अभियान” आदिवासियों और जंगलवासियों का एक राष्ट्रीय मंच है। अभियान से जुड़े हुए संगठनों के द्वारा कम से कम सात राज्य के शहरों में जुलुस निकाले जाएंगे और अन्य राज्यों में भी तैयारी चल रही है।

2019 में केंद्र की सत्ताधारी पार्टी भाजपा ने दो बड़े नीतिगत कदम उठाये है जिससे 10 करोड़ से ज्यादा जंगल में रहनेवाले आदिवासियों और अन्य जंगलवासियों के  परंपरा गत हक़ खतरे में आ गए हैं।  अंग्रेज़ों के ज़माने से आज तक किसी भी सरकार ने वन अधिकार पर इतनी व्यापक हमला नहीं किया है जितना भाजपा सरकार करना चाह रही है।

* 10 मार्च 2019 को केंद्र सरकार ने सभी राज्य सरकारों को एक पत्र द्वारा भारतीय वन कानून में संशोधन करने के लिए एक प्रस्ताव भेजा था। इस प्रस्ताव के अनुसार वन विभाग को अधिकार दिया जायेगा कि वे वन रक्षा के नाम पर गोली चला सकते हैं और अगर वे स्पष्ट करते हैं कि गोली कानून के अनुसार चलाई गयी है तो उनके ऊपर कोई कार्यवाही नहीं होगी (धारा 66 (2))। अगर प्रस्तावित संशोधन कानून बन जायेगा तो वन विभाग के कर्मचारी किसी भी आदिवासी या जंगलवासी का अधिकार पैसे दे कर खतम कर सकेंगे (22A(2), 30(b)), बिना वारंट गिरफ्तार या छापे मार सकेंगे, और किसी भी आदिवासी या जंगलवासी की सम्पति को जब्त कर सकेंगे। अगर वन विभाग किसी व्यक्ति पर आरोप लगाएगा और कहेगा कि उसके पास आपराधिक सामान था तो ऐसी दशा में उस व्यक्ति को खुद साबित करना पड़ेगा कि वह निर्दोष है। अगर यह प्रस्ताव कानून बन जाएगा तो, कानून का राज जंगलों में  से खत्तम हो जायेगा। रेंजर या DFO के कहने पर किसी को भी पकड़ा जा सकेगा या गोली भी मारी जा सकेगी।  जंगल में रहनेवाले लोगों के कोई भी हक़ नहीं बचेंगे। हमारा शक है कि इस संशोधन जंगल वासियों को हटाकर वन क्षेत्र निजी कंपनियों को अपार मुनाफा कमाने के लिए सौंपा जाने की योजना है।

* 2017 से फरवरी 2019 तक केंद्र सरकार सुप्रीम कोर्ट में वन अधिकार कानून के खिलाफ चल रही  याचिका में खामोश रही, जिससे कोर्ट में याचिका कर्ताओं के झूठ का जवाब देने के लिए कोई भी आवाज़ नहीं उठाया गई, जिसकी वजह से  विगत 13 फरवरी को कोर्ट ने लाखों परिवारों की बेदखली करने को आदेश दिया मगर देश भर आंदोलन होने के बाद सरकार कोर्ट में फिर से जाने के लिए मज़बूर हुई तब भी उन्होंने न्यायपीठ से यह  माँग नहीं की कि उक्त आदेश वापस लिया जाये। सरकार ने सिर्फ माँगा कि आदेश को कुछ समय के लिए स्थगित किया जाये। आज तक आदेश स्थगित अथवा पेंडिंग में है और लटकती तलवार के रूप में देश के आदिवासियों के सर के ऊपर आज भी खड़ा है। 12 सितम्बर को फिर से इस याचिका में सुनवाई हुई थी और केंद्र सरकार फिर से गैर हाजिर रही। याद रखने की बात है कि कोई भी प्रदेश में वन अधिकार कानून का सही कार्यान्वयन नही हुआ है।

भोपाल, रायपुर, मुंबई, गढ़चिरोली, भुबनेश्वर, उदयपुर, देहरादून,  गांधीनगर और अन्य शहरों में प्रदर्शन किया जायेगा। 21 नवंबर को भूमि-वन अधिकार आंदोलन का बैनर तले दिल्ली में भी एक बड़ा प्रदर्शन होगा।

इज्जत से जीने का अधिकार अभियान

Protests Planned Across Country Against Attack on the Rights of Tribals and Forest Dwellers

Following a two day national meeting, the Campaign for Survival and Dignity, a national platform of tribal and forest dwellers, today gave a call for national protests in state capitals and other cities on November 17th, 2019. Protests are already confirmed in several States and tens of thousands of people are expected to join.

The BJP government at the Centre has taken two steps this year that would crush the rights of the more than 10 crore tribals and forest dwellers who live in forests:

  • Proposed an amendment to the Indian Forest Act that would allow forest officials to arrest without warrant, raid and search without warrant, confiscate property, extinguish people’s rights by just paying cash, and shoot and kill forest dwellers while facing nothing more than an enquiry. Confessions to a forest officer will be admissible as evidence in court – something that is not true even under ‘anti-terror’ laws – and in many cases the burden will be on the person to prove themselves innocent. If this becomes law, any tribal or forest dweller in the country can by law be arrested, deprived of their rights, or even killed by forest officials on the basis of suspicion alone.
  • The government also remained silent in the Supreme Court, allowing a case based on lies and misleading propaganda to go unchallenged and eventually leading the Court to direct the eviction of millions of families. In the most recent hearing of the case, even after knowing that this case affects more than 10 crore people, the Centre was absent again.

Today crores of forest dwellers are at risk of losing all their rights under the Forest Rights Act, 2006. If the Indian Forest Act goes through, forest dwellers will have less rights than they did under the British. Forests would be converted into a kind of Special Economic Zone where all rights are subject to the whims of forest officials, who will have more power than soldiers in disturbed areas.

Protests will take place in state capitals and other cities on November 17th, including Bhopal, Raipur, Mumbai, Bhubaneshwar, Gadchiroli, Dehradun, Udaipur, and Gandhinagar. On November 21st, under the banner of the Bhumi Adhikar Andolan, a national alliance, a rally is expected to take place in Delhi as well.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity


Centre Fails to Appear Again, Supreme Court Hears Case on Forest Rights Act 

The Central government failed to argue in defense of the Forest Rights Act in the Supreme Court again today. The Court heard arguments in the case against the Forest Rights Act, in which millions of people have been threatened with eviction (see here for a brief explainer on this law and this case). The Court asked where the Central government was and was told the Solicitor General was not present. The Court then heard the matter, allowed all the requests for impleadment by a large number of organisations defending the Forest Rights Act, and also allowed the petitioners’ request to make the Forest Survey of India a party (see below). The Court also said its order putting evictions of rejected claimants on hold will continue, and the matter will now next be heard on November 26th for final arguments.

Observing in court that “it is we [urban and elite citizens] who have destroyed forests in places like Pachmarhi”, the Bench declined the effort of the petitioners to make the situation seem like an emergency, and granted four weeks’ time to the State governments and to other parties to supply data (see below) and to reply. Several other things happened today:

  • Several adivasi and forest dweller organisations, as well as senior academics and conservationists, had applied to be heard in defense of the Forest Rights Act. They were allowed to implead/intervene in the case.
  • One of the key petitioners – the Wildlife Trust of India, lead petitioner in the earliest case before the Court against this law – applied to withdraw from the case (the Court heard it but hasn’t passed an order as yet).
  • The Court issued notice on the recent applications of the petitioners to stop State governments from reviewing rejections of claims under the law, and to direct the Central government to release funds for the Forest Survey of India to conduct its survey using money from compensatory afforestation funds (see here for more on this). The Court will hear arguments on these applications later, after State governments, other organisations and the Central government reply.
  • The Court clarified that its “interim orders will continue” (this is the order dated 28.2.2019 under which evictions of rejected claimants have been put on hold).
  • The Court clarified that the Forest Survey of India’s survey of forest ‘encroachment’, using data from States, will continue, based on the petitioners’ claim that satellite imagery can be used to verify claims under the Act (see here for why this is a bad idea). The petitioners sought to have the Forest Survey of India added as a party, and this was also allowed by the Court.
  • The Court finally said that in the next hearing it will start hearing arguments on all issues, including the constitutional validity of the Act – which is what this case was supposedly about in the first place, see here for a summary – and procedures under the law.

Since February 2019, millions of tribals and forest dwellers whose claims for rights under this law have been rejected have been living in fear of eviction (to understand this law and the case, please see this explainer). These cases, filed by a small group of wildlife NGOs and many retired forest officials, were originally filed on the basis that this law is not constitutional. Over the years, the petitioners then sought to claim that the very procedure that they had claimed was unconstitutional should now be used as the basis for evicting people. From 2016 to February 2019, the Central government remained silent in the matter, and the Court was given only the petitioners’ version, resulting in an order in February to evict all rejected claimants. After nationwide protests, the Centre finally argued in court and that order was put on hold.

We are pleased to see that the Court has not entertained the efforts of this small group of wildlife NGOs – who are not even supported by the vast majority of conservationists – to keep on trying to claim that there is some emergency related to forest destruction or that people should be evicted. Instead the Court has now said that it will hear arguments on the constitutional validity of the Act and that it will give a chance for others to be heard. The Central government’s continued apathy and silence in the face of this attack on the rights of millions of people, however, is deeply disturbing.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity

Tomorrow, SC Will Hear New Applications in Anti Forest Rights Case That Again Threaten Rights of Millions

The Supreme Court is scheduled to hear the case against the Forest Rights Act tomorrow, September 12th (see here for a brief explainer about the Act and the case). The petitioners have filed new applications in this case that could again result in millions of people being denied their rights.

The key question tomorrow will be – will the Central government oppose these applications and defend the FRA? Or will it again choose to just argue on technicalities?

In three new applications before the Court, the petitioners are again seeking to turn the focus of their case away from the constitutionality of the law and on to new subjects which have nothing to do with their original petition. The two main applications are here and here, but relevant paras are linked below. They want the Court to:

The only reason they have gotten away with all this so far is because of the silence of the Central government. Back in February, the Court had passed orders that would have resulted in the eviction of at least nine million people. These orders were subsequently put “on hold” after nationwide protests resulted in the Central government asking the Court to do so.

Till date, the Central government has never asked the Court to withdraw these orders. It has instead only seemed to be wanting to buy time. Will it oppose these new applications?

Again, to know more about this case and the background to it and the Act, see our explainer here.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity

Supreme Court Hears Anti Forest Rights Act Case, Next Hearing on September 12th

Today the Supreme Court heard the cases against the Forest Rights Act. The Central government chose not to argue on the main question of evicting people, but instead just pointed out that due process have not always been followed, in response to a question from the court. Seven states have not yet filed their reply affidavits.

The Court hence directed that the State governments who haven’t filed replies should do so within fifteen days and the matter will next be heard on September 12th.

The Court also directed state governments to supply information about rejected claims to the Forest Survey of India by August 31st. We hope this question is challenged in the next hearing, as this reliance on satellite imagery is not in accordance with law and is dangerous (see last question here).

The order putting evictions on hold continues – and any State government attempting to evict people on the pretext of this case is not only violating the law but also the court’s order.

We are disappointed that the petitioners’ attempt to distort both the law and the facts has still not been fully challenged and the eviction order is still only “on hold”, as opposed to being withdrawn. This order emerged out of the Centre’s failure to defend the law in 2017 and 2018. We and many forest communities of this country will continue to fight for the Central government to do its job in court, defend the law and have this order withdrawn.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity

Supreme Court Case Not Heard – But Government’s Responsibility Still Stands

The Supreme Court did not hear the case against the Forest Rights Act today due to other matters. This delay is not bad news in itself, but even though the Court specifically put evictions on hold on February 28th, there have been threatened and actual evictions across the country. Moreover, so long as the order is only “on hold”, this kind of misuse will continue, and the spectre of mass evictions being ordered again will also hang over millions of tribals and forest dwellers. It is the constitutional duty of governments – particularly the BJP government at the Centre – to ensure that this case is dismissed. The silence of the Centre in 2017-2018 ensured that this situation arose. We call upon the government to present the Court with the true picture – that this is a historic legislation for the rights of millions of people and a democratic step forward for genuine conservation. To know more, see our explainer on this ten year old case.

Explainer: Millions Face Possible Eviction – What is the Supreme Court Forest Rights Case About?

On July 22nd, tens of thousands of tribals and forest dwellers held protests across India (on the call of the Bhumi Adhikar Andolan). Climate change organisations from around the world have condemned the Indian government. And soon, the Supreme Court is likely to hear a case in which it had earlier told State governments to evict millions of tribal and forest dweller families. The order was subsequently put on hold.

But what is all this about?

Why was the Forest Rights Act passed?

Millions of people have lived in and near India’s forest lands for centuries, but until 2006 they mostly had no legal right to their homes, lands or livelihoods. India’s forest laws followed a colonial model that empowered government officials – forest officers – to decide all questions relating to forests. This resulted in a situation where forests are destroyed merely based on the signature of a few officials in Delhi, while tribals and forest dwellers are subject to harassment, evictions, etc, on the pretext of being encroachers in their own homes. Torture, bonded labour, extortion of money and sexual assault are all extremely common. The situation is so bad that in 1989 the then Commissioner for SCs and STs, in his 29th Report, had said that “The criminalisation of the entire communities in the tribal areas is the darkest blot on the liberal tradition of our country.”

It is not an accident that tribals are the poorest communities in India. More background on this is here.

What does the Forest Rights Act say?

Following nationwide protests, in 2006 the Forest Rights Act was passed. It put in place a three stage process by which the rights of tribals and other forest dwellers were to be recorded and recognised. It listed thirteen types of rights, including rights over land being cultivated, rights to non-timber forest produce, and most crucially, the right to protect and conserve forests (which no Indian law had ever recognised as a right before). Details of these rights can be found here.

How does the Forest Rights Act help conservation?

The FRA changed the old system, where only officials had decision making powers, to one where officials should be accountable to the people they are ostensibly meant to serve.  Using its historic provisions recognising forest dwellers’ right to conserve, the Forest Rights Act has been used by communities around the country to challenge tree-felling, fight commercial plantations in the name of compensatory afforestation, oppose ecologically destructive projects and consequent air, soil and water pollution, and regenerate biodiversity. The Act has been hailed by Indian wildlife experts, international conservationists and conservation scientists, by groups fighting climate change and by other movements around the world as a step forward for both social justice and conservation.

What is the Supreme Court case about?

In 2008, retired forest officials and their associations filed six cases in six High Courts (that were cut and paste copies of each other) and two groups of wildlife NGOs filed cases in the Supreme Court. All of these cases sought to have the Forest Rights Act struck down as unconstitutional. More details on what the petitions are asking for can be found here.

What did the Court order in February and why?

In early 2016, the petitioners stopped asking for the Act to be struck down and instead began demanding that those forest dwellers whose claims had been rejected should be evicted (this is a misleading claim, see next question). After initially opposing this in court, the BJP government chose to remain silent for two years. As a result, in February the Court ordered the eviction of all rejected claimants. This would have affected over nine million people.

The order was condemned by conservationists, forest dwellers’ movements, opposition parties, and several United Nations special rapporteurs for human rights.

Why did the Court put its order on hold?

After nationwide protests, the government finally went back to the Court and pointed out that the petitioners are deliberately distorting facts (more details here). In reality, the Centre admitted, most rejections of claims have been illegal. But instead of asking the Court to take back its order, the Centre only asked for it to be “put on hold.” The Court did so and asked State governments to report on how they had rejected claims.

Despite the court putting its order on hold, some States continued to try to evict people, leading to clashes in Madhya Pradesh, Telengana, Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere.

What is going to happen when the case is heard next?

The Court will, most likely:

  • review the replies by State governments
  • hear applications from different groups seeking to be heard in favour of the FRA, including senior conservationists and academics, national adivasi and farmers’ organisations, and others
  • hear whatever the Central government wishes to say, if anything
  • hear the petitioners’ attempts to make satellite imagery into the centre of their case (see next question below)

The Court may choose to keep its earlier eviction order on hold, to withdraw it, or to lift the hold, which will again place more than nine million people in danger of eviction.

What is all this talk about satellite imagery?

The petitioners and some forest officials have long been claiming that satellite images both show “forest destruction” and should be used to verify if a person claiming forest rights actually had them. This is a deliberate misconception.

In reality, satellite images:

  • Are easy to distort, since everything from seasonal changes to lack of ground truthing can lead to misleading conclusions (here’s a striking recent example)
  • Have nothing to do with most of the rights under the Act, such as non-timber forest produce, grazing, etc., which won’t show up on satellite images anyway
  • Cannot even be used to verify land rights, since a person may choose to leave land under their occupation fallow for some time, may grow fruit trees or other tree crops, or may have had trees illegally planted on their lands

As a result, in 2013 the Gujarat High Court had held that satellite imagery can be used as one among several forms of evidence, but cannot be made a mandatory requirement for recognition of forest rights.