The Forest Rights Act

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Police Abduct Victims of Police Rape and Three Others in Nagpur – Urgent


After raping two adivasi women last week, police in Gadchiroli district, Maharashtra, have engaged in a spiral of atrocities. They have now abducted five people yesterday, including the victims, and are holding them at an undisclosed location. Phone numbers for details and for officials are at the end of this message.

Yesterday evening (January 28th, 2017) at 4:30 pm, two adivasi women who had been raped by the police and their supporters Shila Gota and Sainu Gota were abducted from the office of Nagpur High Court lawyer Nihalsingh Rathod. The police claimed to come from Bardi police station. They did not explain why they were detaining these people and refused to answer questions from the lawyers about what they were charged with (hence, this was an abduction, not an arrest as per law). At 7:40 pm the police returned again and detained activist Mangesh Holi. Till date it is not clear where any of these people are being held or why.

On January 20th, 2017, two women from Gonawara village of Bande block in Chhattisgarh were traveling to Nayatala village (Etapalli, Maharashtra) to see relatives. They were blocked by the Maharashtra Police near Todgatta village and held overnight. In the morning of the 21st they were taken to Naytala, where they were released after the villagers confirmed their identity. But the badly frightened women then told their relatives that they had been sexually assaulted by the police. When the villagers demanded to know what had happened the police battalion beat them up and again seized the two women. When the villagers followed and demanded to know where they were being held the police initially denied that they had ever detained them. After protests the police finally issued a statement saying they had detained the women “for security reasons.” The women were then taken to the district hospital for a medical checkup on the 22nd, but their relatives were barred from meeting them. After repeated protests, the women were finally released on the evening of January 26th after being subjected to further atrocities. They were then again abducted yesterday from the office of the lawyer who was assisting them.

The people of over 70 villages in this region have passed resolutions against iron ore mining and have been struggling for their rights under the Forest Rights Act and against illegal mining. For this reason the police repression in the area has massively increased recently.

Please call the concerned officials and ask to know what has happened to those abducted:

District Collector, Gadchiroli: 07132222001, 07798977831

Superintendent of Police, Gadchiroli: 08652573333, 07132222151

SDO: 09403985357

Reporters interested in details of yesterday’s incidents and the atrocities inflicted on these women can contact Adv. Nihalsingh Rathod at 09702136264, 09403253160.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity


Forest Rights Are Vital to Conservation – Conservationists’ Letter to Environment Ministry

NB: This statement has now been endorsed by 40 international conservation organisations and experts. See here for their statement. 

On October 6th, 2016, a group of wildlife scientists and conservationists wrote to the Minister of Environment and Forests, calling upon him to ensure that the Forest Rights Act is respected by the Ministry.  They pointed out that “disregarding the Forest Rights Act or undermining it will greatly damage environmental protection in the country.”


Open letter to:

Shri Anil Madhav Dave

Minister of State, Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change

Indira Paryavaran Bhavan, Jor Bagh Road                                                             

Aliganj, New Delhi- 110 003

Date: 6th October, 2016

Dear Sir,

Sub: Request to ensure that the FRA is implemented and its integrity upheld – as a vital measure for conservation

We are conservation organisations and ecological scientists working across India. We are disturbed by recent reports that the Environment Ministry is not prioritising the Forest Rights Act in its policy making and may be acting in ways that are not in consonance with that law. As the mandate of the Ministry is to ensure protection of the environment, we hope you will take cognizance of the following points that clearly show that disregarding the Forest Rights Act or undermining it will greatly damage environmental protection in the country. Here are our views on the value of the FRA:

  1. The FRA strengthens conservation through globally recognized inclusive approaches:

The Forest Rights Act stands proudly along with a few other conservation legislations in the country as the only line of defense from wanton destruction of natural treasures of the country. The FRA is a significant step forward for conservation and environmental protection in India. For decades now, international conservation best practice has recognised that sustainable and effective protection of sensitive ecosystems requires the democratic involvement of those who live in and depend on those ecosystems (both terrestrial and marine) – as legally empowered rights holders. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have formally recognised this in their policy documents on protection of ecosystems. The international community as a whole has recognised this in the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), including in its Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA). Old models built around removing and excluding local communities have been shown to result in impoverishment of people while failing to protect the environment effectively (instead encouraging corruption and abuse of power). The Global Environment Outlook Report 5, mentions clearly, that world over while the number of protected areas has gone up the actual biodiversity has only decreased. One of the important reasons identified for this decrease in biodiversity has been lack of involvement of local people in governance and management of protected areas. Both academic literature and international policy documents demonstrate this in numerous contexts. Indian experiences as diverse as Uttarakhand’s Van Panchayats, ­community forest management in Odisha; Recognition of rights and subsequent development of people’s tiger conservation plan in BR Hills Tiger Reserve in Karnataka; Collective efforts of the administration, civil society and local people to recognise rights and work towards a co-existence plan in Simlipal Tiger Reserve in Odisha, Conservation of forests and wildlife after recognition of CFR rights, including by setting aside no go zones for them in villages such as Pachgaon and Nayakheda in Maharashtra; and continuation of effective forest management by villages such as Mendha Lekha, among many others provide us with a wealth of local knowledge and examples to draw upon.

  1. The FRA is a vital tool for community-based conservation movements:

The FRA is not only to be viewed as a social justice measure, but also as a tool to democratize environmental decision making and forest governance in India. It empowers forest communities to be a part of the decision making process, and therefore encourages a bottom up approach to natural resource governance in India. Across the world, there is growing evidence that involving local communities in environmental governance and protection plans promotes decisions that are environmentally sound. Yet government policy has focused solely on criminalising local communities and strengthening the powers of forest officials – a model that has either failed in many contexts or is increasingly being questioned as flawed, counter-productive and short-sighted. The Forest Rights Act represents for the first time, that Indian environmental policy has sought to incorporate these principles of respect for rights (including right to use, manage and conserve), transparency and accountability, in a clear legal framework. After the passage of the Act, communities across the country have also used it as an instrument of conservation, such as through stopping coupe felling in north Bengal, preventing wanton destruction of forests for private profit in Odisha, and as mentioned above sustainably using and conserving forests and biodiversity in Maharashtra, Odisha and elsewhere.

  1. Wilful misinterpretation of the FRA legislation:

Many foresters mistakenly believe that the FRA will cause forest loss. Some have made simplistic calculations like number of Adivasis multiplied by 4 ha given equals the amount of forest area that will be lost. It must be noted that neither is 4 ha the amount to be ‘handed out’ (it is only the upper bound), nor is it is “giving land” to all Adivasis. The Act only provides for all forest-dwellers whose historical residence and dependence over a particular forest land has not been recognized. Most important, individual forest rights correspond to historically settled or cultivated land, which in reality does not contain any forest cover anyway. So effectively implementing the individual rights provisions does not really involve any loss of actual forest cover.

Critics of the Act argue that there is a potential for misuse by vested interests. We do not support any misuse of the Act. However, that is not a valid ground for calls for scrapping or failing to implement an important Act. Any law including the Wild Life (Protection) Act has the potential for misuse and flawed implementation, but that does not mean that the law itself is wrong/or at fault.

In contrast, eviction drives and harassment of legitimate rights holders have led to a situation of continuous conflict in forest areas – which is hardly conducive to conservation.

In this context we are disturbed to find the Environment Ministry continuing to make policy in a manner that does not seem to respect this law or its mandate. Some recent examples include the laws and policies such as Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act and Wildlife Action Plan 2017-31, which make no reference to the Forest Rights Act and rights of local communities; and reported moves to bypass the need for local communities’ consent before diverting forests. Such steps increase the likelihood of maladministration, abuse of power against local forest dwellers, ecologically unfriendly and destructive policies, and the use of plantations as some kind of panacea for all forms of forest destruction. We see this as a failure to fulfil the Environment Ministry’s primary mandate. We call upon you to, as a conservation measure, ensure that respect for and implementation of the Forest Rights Act becomes one of the top priorities of your Ministry and of the country’s forest bureaucracy. We hope that steps in this direction can be taken.


Dr. Nitin Rai, Ecologist, ATREE, Bangalore

Dr. Ravi Chellam, Ph.D., Executive Director, Greenpeace India

Dr. Sharachchandra Lele, Environmental Researcher and Member, MoEF-MoTA Joint Committee on FRA

Ashish Kothari, Kalpavriksh, Pune

Neema Pathak Broome, Kalpavriksh, Pune

Dr. Aparna Watve, Assistant Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences

Janaki Lenin, Conservation Journalist and Writer, Tamil Nadu

Dr. Aparajita Datta, Scientist, Nature Conservation Foundation

Dr. T.R. Shankar Raman, Scientist, Nature Conservation Foundation

Dr. Divya Mudappa, Scientist, Nature Conservation Foundation

Dr. M.D. Madhusudan, Scientist, Nature Conservation Foundation

Dr. Charudutt Mishra, Scientist, Nature Conservation Foundation

Priya Pillai, Greenpeace India

Giri Rao, Vasundhara, Odisha

Tushar Dash, Vasundhara, Odisha

Aarthi Sridhar, Dakshin Foundation

Dr. Kartik Shankar, Dakshin Foundation

Marianne Manuel, Dakshin Foundation

Ananya Rao, Dakshin Foundation

Dr. Harini Nagendra, ecologist, Bangalore

Dr. Prashanth N S, Faculty & Tribal Health and Development Researcher, Institute of Public Health, Bangalore

Kalyan Varma, Associate and environmental photographer, Nature Conservation Foundation

National Convention Held in Bhubaneshwar on Forest Rights

Around four hundred participants from Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Himachal Pradesh joined the CSD national convention in Bhubaneshwar on September 28th.  They were joined by leaders and activists of struggle groups in Odisha as well.  The following key demands were raised at the Convention:

Major  Demands From the Central Govt.

  1. Ensure the Authority and Power of the Gram Sabha recognised under Forest Rights Act, 2006 in the Rules to be framed under CAMPA Fund Act, 2016. Ensure that the gram sabha would be the decision maker in case of plantation or any activities to be carried using CAMPA fund within the Community Forest Resource Area.
  2. Halt the JFM Resolution, 1990 and respect the Gram Sabha as the “authority” for protecting the forest.
  3. Halt illegal diversion of forest land without gram sabha consent and prosecute the officials responsible.
  4. Respect the power of the gram sabha in all laws on land acquisition and forests. All planning, change of use and activities in forests should be subject to the powers of the gram sabha.

Major Demands From the Govt. of Odisha

  1. Respect the Gram Sabha as the authority of the village duly recognised under Forest Rights Act, 2006.
  2. Identify hundreds of forest and un-surveyed villages, form FRC recognising Gram Sabha there and convert them into Revenue Villages.
  3. Help gram sabhas to demarcate forest land recognised under individual Forest Rights Act in the State.
  4. Recognised the IFR rights of the OTFDs duly recommended and approved by Gram Sabhas.
  5. Produce village wise list of the IFR title to ascertain no of villages covered under Forest Rights Act, 2006 till date.
  6. Engage in a widespread awareness campaign on FRA specially on Community Forest rights across the State.
  7. Stop giving false information on the CFR rights recognised in State and validate them with ground realities.
  8. Stop evicting tribals and forest dwellers from their habitats and land under cultivation though Tiger Projects and plantation. Stop relocation of communities from Similipal Tiger Reserve.
  9. Dissolve all Vana Suraskhya Samiti(VSS)/EDC/Ama Jungle Yojana(AJY) violating Forest Rights Act.
  10. Recognise PTG rights over their habitat duly recognised under FRA.
  11. Recognise ownership rights over Minor Forest Produce and stop taking royalty on kendu leaf and bamboo.
  12. Make correction and consolidation of Record of Rights(RoR) of the forest land recognised under IFR and CFR in the State.
  13. Drop all forest cases filed against tribals and forest dwellers after the enactment of FRA, 2006.

Hundreds of Villages Across India Demand End to ‘Afforestation’ As Excuse for Forest Dept Land Grab

In July of this year, Parliament passed the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Act.

Afforestation sounds like a good thing, but in practice this law would transfer huge amounts of money to forest officials with little oversight on whether they use that money for genuinely ecologically friendly activities – and with no oversight at all on whether that money is used to grab common and individual lands that belong to people.

Despite concerted efforts by the opposition to address these issues when the bill was passed, the government managed to fob them off with a simple assurance that it would “deal with these matters in the Rules” (the separate procedures for implementation of the law).

Now, hundreds of villages across India have called on Environment Minister Anil Dave to live up to his promise. The letters have been sent by:

  • 54 villages in Tamil Nadu, along with an alliance of 12 organisations
  • over 100 villages in three districts in Jharkhand, with more in process
  • 165 villages in Maharashtra
  • 14 block level confederations from five districts in Rajasthan
  • 46 villages in Uttarakhand

The letters point out that if the Environment Minister is serious about his assurance, he must ensure that:

  • No work under this Act should be undertaken without the informed consent of the gram sabhas whose members use the lands affected by the project, or whose customary boundaries include that land. This consent should be taken with a minimum of 50% quorum and should take place at the village / hamlet level, regardless of whether the land is revenue land or forest land. This is the bare minimum required for any genuine participation.
  • No work under this Act should involve lands used (individually or in common) or occupied by Dalits, adivasis, small farmers, etc.
  • Funds under this Act should be under the control of the gram sabha and not just of the officials.
  • On forest land, no work should be undertaken under this Act unless the implementation of the Forest Rights Act is complete in the area and all villages therein have been given their titles to community forest resource rights (as the law requires for every village with forest dwellers).

Will the Modi government ignore the voice of hundreds of villages across India, and persist in its desire to violate the law?

Campaign for Survival and Dignity


A Black Day for The Rights of Millions – Rajya Sabha Passes Afforestation Bill


Today was a black day for forest dwellers’ rights.

The Rajya Sabha has passed the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, 2016. This Bill essentially gives carte blanche to forest officials to spend gigantic amounts of money (over 40,000 crores) without any accountability to the people whose forests, lands and lives will be damaged or destroyed by their activities.

The Congress moved an amendment (see here for the text) that would have been the bare minimum necessary to protect the rights of millions of people – our country’s poorest communities.

The government said we won’t do any of that. We respect forest rights so much, we’ll make an Act that doesn’t say a single word about them. Our officials will continue to facilitate corporates grabbing people’s forest rights. We’ll just give you a paper assurance that we “will deal with it in the Rules.” Much of the opposition lined up for this sham; the Congress dithered and flip-flopped on its own amendment.  And, driven by the greed of State and Central bureaucracies, the Bill was passed.

But this issue will not be settled with this. For 150 years the forest dwellers of this country have fought a criminal and oppressive colonial system for their rights. It was their democratic struggle that resulted in the Forest Rights Act. It is their struggle that will halt the forest bureaucracy in its tracks – no matter how much the NDA government tries to bend over backwards to please its bureaucrat allies and its corporate masters. The Environment Ministry will be held to its assurance today.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity


The Forest Policy That Wasn’t – But Which Says A Lot

Last week, the Ministry of Environment and Forests uploaded a “draft National Forest Policy” and invited comments in two weeks.

Then, they decided it was not a draft at all, but just a “study”. This is odd, considering that the document is titled “National Forest Policy (Draft).”

And, on top of this, this policy that is not a policy directly incites State Forest Departments to violate the single most important forest law passed since independence – the Forest Rights Act of 2006 – by supporting their disastrous Joint Forest Management policies and rechristening it “community forest management.” This when, as per international studies, almost half the forest land in the country actually belongs to communities as per law. Just to add insult to injury, the policy does not even contain the words “forest rights” and does not have a single reference to the law.

Nothing unusual for this Ministry. Consider what it has done in the last two years:

The single consistent theme is – act as if the Environment Ministry and forest officials are above the law, ignore local communities, and treat them as if they are animals with no legal rights. Then empower your bureaucrats with sweeping, illegal powers and massive funds, while handing out the country’s resources to corporates. Call this “reforms” and “transparency” while making sure unaccountable bureaucrats can seize natural resources for their own and corporates’ benefit – even at the cost of endangering the country’s entire financial system.

The final irony? A “nationalist” ruling party obsessed with accusing others of being “anti-national” – while systematically seeking to restore the colonial system of forest management and the colonial law on land acquisition.

A crusade in which the Environment Ministry is leading from the front.

Campaign for Survival and Dignity

Opposition Takes Stand After PM Modi Tries to Dodge Forest Rights Issue

On Friday, May 13th, Prime Minister Narendra Modi implicitly attacked the Opposition for “delaying” the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill, claiming that “thousands of crores” could have been released to the States had it been passed.  This was a transparent dodge, since the issue was not whether to pass the Bill or not; the Bill could easily have been passed if the government had agreed to respect forest rights.

This was clear from the beiinning.  After the PM’s statement, Congress leader Jairam Ramesh issued a short statement to clear the air:

In his farewell remarks to the Rajya Sabha yesterday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi regretted the failure of the Rajya Sabha to pass the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill in this session. However, the Prime Minister failed to mention that the reason this Bill could not be passed was his own government’s inexplicable decision to not include any provisions in the Bill for respecting the rights of forest dwellers bestowed by the Forest Rights Act, 2006 when engaging in afforestation projects. This was objected to by the Congress, CPM, JD(U) and the TMC. This at a time when plantation activities of forest authorities are resulting in conflicts across the country. When the opposition gave notice for amendments to this effect, the government could have accepted them; but instead of doing so, the government chose to defer the Bill.  This shows clearly that the government does not intend to respect forest rights, as is apparent from its moves to lease forest lands to private companies and similar steps. It is for the Prime Minister to explain why his government is so keen on transferring thousands of crores to forest bureaucrats without any measures to ensure that these funds are not misused, and that the rights of our country’s poorest people are protected.

Furthermore, on Thursday – when there was still time – CPM MP Jitendra Choudhury had written to Environment Minister Javadekar to accommodate protection of forest rights in the Bill, reminding of him of commitments he had made during the Lok Sabha debate.  He released the letter after the PM’s statement. A copy of the letter is below.



Letter from Com. Jitendra Choudhury, CPM MP, Lok Sabha